Word order in Spanish sentences


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WORD ORDER IN THE SENTENCE



Active voice describes a sentence where the subject performs the action stated by the verb.

In passive voice sentences, the subject is acted upon by the verb.



A. ACTIVE SENTENCE:


With nouns:

Subject

Verb

Direct object

Indirect object

Complement of place

El profesor

da

el libro

al alumno

en la clase.

The teacher

gives

the book

to the student

in the classroom.



With the direct pronoun:

Subject

Direct object

Verb

Indirect object

Complement of place

El profesor

lo

da

al alumno

en la clase.

it

 

 

With the indirect pronoun:

Subject

Indirect object

Verb

Direct object

Complement of place

El profesor

le

da

el libro

en la clase.

him



With the direct and indirect pronoun. Him = le becomes se

Subject

Indirect object

Direct object

Verb

Complement of place

El profesor

se

lo

da

en la clase.

him

it

The teacher gives it to him in the classroom


- In a negative sentence, the adverb NO comes always after the subject:

El profesor NO da el libro al alumo.

El profesor NO lo da al alumno.

El profesor NO le da el libro.

El profesor NO se lo da.

The teacher does not give the book to the student.

The teacher does not give it to the student.

The teacher does not give him / her the book.

The teacher does not give it to him / her.


If the sentence has two verbs (Indicative plus Infinitive or Gerund), the pronoun object follows the infinitive or gerund, forming a single word.

Or: the pronouns precede the Indicative and then are all separated. In any case the indirect object precedes the direct object.

El profesor (no) quiere darlo al alumno

El profesor (no) quiere darle el libro

El profesor (no) quiere dárselo

or (no) se lo quiere dar.

or (no) le quiere dar.

or (no) lo quiere dar.



B. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SENTENCES:


Active:

Subject

Verb

Direct object

El profesor

The teacher

escribe

writes

el libro.

the book.

Passive

Subject

Verb

Preposition

POR

object

El libro

The book

es escrito

is written

por

by

el profesor.

the teacher.