Gender of nouns


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GENDER OF NOUNS



a) Masculine


1. If they finish with an O:

el cuadro

the picture

el libro

the book


Exceptions: la mano (the hand) and the words finishing with "A" but which have been shortened from a longer one finishing with an "A":

La foto

(from fotografía)

The photograph

La moto

(from motocicleta)

The motorbike

La radio

(from radiofonía)

The radio

2. In general all nouns ending with: E, I, U, J, L, N, R, S, T.

El pie

the foot

el reloj

the clock

El papel

the paper

el pan

the bread

El amor

the love



b) Feminine


1. If they finish with an "A".

la mesa

the table

la cama

the bed

 

Exceptions: el día, el mapa,.. etc. See list below:

el día

day

el diploma

diploma

el mapa

map

el poeta

poet

el clima

climate

el drama

drama

el problema

problem

el sistema

system

el tema

theme

el idioma

language

el aroma

aroma

el sofá

sofa

el reuma

rheum

el crucigrama

crossword puzzle

el fantasma

phantom

el programa

program

el planeta

planet

el telegrama

telegram


2. In general, all nouns ending with:

D

ciudad

city

 

Z

actriz

actress

 

CIÓN

nación, revolución

nation, revolution

 


c) The same word for both genders

(only the article changes):


1. Words ending in ista:

El / la turista

El / la dentista

El / la pianista

El / la artista

the tourist.

the dentist.

the pianist.

the artist.


2. Words as:

El /  la   testigo

El /  la   homicida

El /  la   imbécil

El /  la   joven

the witness

the homicide

the imbecile

the young man or woman


+ nouns relating to persons, ending in ante or ente.

El / la estudiante

El / la cliente

the student

the client



d) Some nouns change their meaning when changing the article:


El frente

the front

La frente

the forehead

El cura

the priest

La cura

the cure, the healing

El cometa

the comet

La cometa

the kite

El capital

the capital sum

La capital

the capital city

El cólera

the cholera

La cólera

the anger



e) Feminine nouns starting with a stressed A take the masculine article in singular:


El agua clara

the clear water

   

but the plural:

Las aguas claras

the clear waters

   


f) Some nouns become feminine with the following suffixes:


-ESA

el conde

the count

la condesa

the countess

-ISA

el poeta

the poet

la poetisa

the poetess

-IZ

el actor

the actor

la actriz

the actress

-INA

el héroe

the hero

la heroína

the heroine



g) Some nouns have a different root in masculine and feminine:


Padre - Madre

father - mother

Caballo - Yegua

horse - mare

Padrino - Madrina

godfather - godmother

Buey - Vaca

bull - cow

Marido - Mujer (esposa)

husband - wife

Hombre - Mujer

man - woman

Yerno - Nuera

son-in-law - daughter-in-law

Jinete - Amazona

rider - rider

Varón - Hembra

male - female

Carnero - Oveja

ram - ewe