Characteristics of some verbs


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CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME VERBS



HABER

(to have).

- It is an auxiliary verb for the active sentences. For the passive ones the verb "SER" will be used.

- Together with the participle it serves to form the compound tenses: present perfect, pluscuamperfecto, etc.

he tomado

habré aprendido

haya encontrado

había comido

habría venido

hubiera comprado

HABER DE

+ Inf.

or

TENER QUE

+ Inf.

(to have to).

- It has a similar meaning as "HABER DE" or "DEBER" but with a stronger meaning.

Hemos de volver pronto. Tenemos que volver pronto

We have to come back early

SER

(to be)

- Indicates a permanent condition or state.

Ellos son españoles.

They are Spaniards.

- It acts as auxiliary verb for the passive sentences.

Es mordido por un perro.

He is bitten by a dog.

ESTAR

(to be)

a) Indicates a non permanent condition or state.

b) or indicates a place:

Estamos enfermos.

We are sick.

Madrid está en España.

Madrid is in Spain.

c) Precedes a participle which acts as an adjective:

La puerta está abierta y el armario cerrado.

The door is open and the cupboard closed.

SOLER

(to use to)

It always comes before another verb in infinitive.

It is never used in the future or conditional.

Suelo ir al cine los domingos.

I use to go on Sundays to the cinema.

LLOVER


TRONAR


NEVAR

They are only used in the third person.

Aquí llueve mucho.

Here it rains much.

Ayer nevó en las montañas.

Yesterday it snowed on the mountains.


Other impersonal verbs are:

Amanecer

to dawn

Anochecer

to grow dark.

Hacer buen / mal tiempo

good / bad weather.

Hacer sol

To be sunny.

ACABAR DE

+ Inf.

(to have just)

The action has occured a short time ago/has just been completed:

Acabo de hablar con él.

I have just spoke with him.

IR A

+ Inf.

(going to...)

The action is going to take place soon. It has a similar meaning as a future.

Parece que va a llover

It looks like it is going to rain.

VOLVER A

+ Inf.

(to happen again.)

The action is repeated. = future + "otra vez".

Volveré a leer el libro. = Leeré otra vez el libro.

I will read the book again.

ECHAR/SE A

+ Inf.

(Ponerse a)

(to start doing...)

The action will start without delay.

Se echó a llorar.

He started to cry

Echó a correr.

He begun to run. He run off

Se puso a cantar.

He begun to sing.

 

DEJAR DE

+ Inf.

(To stop ...)

The action stops.

Quiere dejar de fumar.

He wants to quit smoking.

DEBER DE

+ Inf.

(It seams as ...). (Probability).

The action is not sure.

Deben de estar durmiendo.

They must be sleeping.

IR

+ Ger.

The action is taking place.

Ellos van aprendiendo el idioma.

They are learning the language.

ESTAR

+ Ger.

The action has started and continues.

Está estudiando medicina.

SEGUIR

+ Ger.

Similar meaning as the previous one.

Sigo creyendo en él.

I still believe in him