Use of tenses and mood


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USE OF TENSES AND MOODS



A verb is composed of two parts:

a) The root (the invariable part):

TOMar

COMer

PARTir

and

b) the ending (the variable part):

TomO

comIERON

partIRÁS


Regular verbs are those keeping their root invariable and adding the regular endings of the corresponding tenses:

tomo

tomé

tomaba

tomaré

tomaría

tome

tomara


Irregular verbs are those changing their roots or their endings in some of the tenses:

voy

fui

iba

iré

iría

vaya

fuera


INFINITIVE


- The infinitive has 3 possible endings: AR, ER, IR

- The majority of verbs have the ending with "AR".

- The group finishing with "IR" are the minority.

- The reflexive verbs have the third person of the reflexive pronoun "SE" (oneself) at the end and together:

lavarse

reírse

to wash oneself,

to laugh.


- If an infinitive is preceded by the contraction "AL" (a + el) means the same as cuando" (when) + an indicativ:

Al entrar en la tienda o cuando entra (entró en la tienda)

When he comes (came) into the shop.


- An infinitive can also serve as a noun.

El trabajar es conveniente.

It is necessary to work. Work is necessary.


PARTICIPLE


To form the participles the verbs ending with -AR take -ADO after the root.

tomAR - tomADO

(to take - taken)


The verbs ending with -ER or -IR take -IDO after the root.

comER - comIDO

reIR - reIDO

(to eat - eaten)

(to serve - served)


Irregular participles:

abierto

escrito

cubierto

puesto

dicho

roto

opened

written

covered

put

said

broken

muerto

visto

hecho

vuelto

impreso

died

seen

done

came back

printed


As well as the derived verbs with the same endings:

Hacer:

Deshacer:

Escribir:

Describir:

hecho

deshecho

escrito

descrito

to make - made.

to dissolve - dissolved.

to write - written.

to describe - described

 

- The participle of "estar" (to be), can also acts as an adjective and varies accordingly its gender and number.

Está abierto / a, están abiertos / as.

It is open, they are open.


- With the verb "ser" (to be) the participle serves to form the passive voice and varies accordingly its gender and number.

La carta es escrita por el estudiante.

The letter (s) is (are) written by the student.

Las cartas son escritas por el estudiante.


GERUND



The verbs ending in -AR take -ANDO after the root.

tomAR = tomANDO (to take - taking)


The verbs ending with -ER or -IR take -IENDO after the root.

comER = comIENDO (to eat - eating)

recibIR =recibIENDO (to receive - receiving).

Irregular gerunds are:

1.

dormir

morir

poder

durmiendo

muriendo

pudiendo

sleep

die

can


2. If before the ending -IENDO there is a vowel, the "i" of -IENDO changes to "Y" and forms -YENDO.

Thus the Gerund of IR is YENDO.

oir (to hear) = oyendo

caer (to fall) = cayendo

huir (to flee) = huyendo


3. The verbs having an "e" in their root which changes it in "i", in the present and in the 3rd. person of the past tense, (group II) also take the "i" in the gerund.

pedir: pido - pidió - pidiendo

servir: sirvo - sirvió - sirviendo

sentir: siento - sintió - sintiendo.


- A gerund preceding the verb "estar" (to be) forms the continuous form

Estálloviendo.

It is raining.


- The gerund in a continuous form can be substituted by "cuando" (when) or "mientras" (while) in a sentence with present or past.

Lo escribo comiendo (mientras como).

La vi entrando en el cine (cuando entraba en el cine).

I write it eating (while I eat).

I saw her coming into the cinema (when she came) .

- The gerund can be substituted by "si" (if) in a sentence with present or imperfect of subjunctive.

Repitiéndolo (si lo repites) lo aprenderás.

Repitiéndolo (si lo repitieras) lo aprenderás.

Repeating it (if you repeat it) you will learn it.

Repeating it (if you repeated it) you would learn it.

- Indicates the manner:

¿Cómo lo has encontrado? Buscando.

(porque lo busqué).

How did you find it? Looking for it.

(because I looked for it).



INDICATIVE


PRESENT


- Indicates an action happening in that moment and not completely finished.

Enrique vive en Las Palmas.

Henry lives in Las Palmas.


- It can substitute a future if the action is sure and will take place soon.

Mañana voy a verte.

Tomorrow I go to see you.


Irregulars:


a) Some verbs change a vowel in their roots:

pensar - pienso

I think

e = i: pedir - pido

I order

o = ue: poder - puedo

I can

u = ue: jugar - juego

I play


b) Some verbs change only the first person:

sé(saber)

I know

quepo (caber)

I fit in

salgo (salir)

I go out

hago (hacer)

I do

pongo (poner)

I put

traigo (traer)

I bring

estoy (estar)

I am

doy (dar)

I give

veo (ver)

I see.


c) The infinitives ending in: OCER, ECER, UCIR take the ending ZCO in the first person:

conozco (conocer)

crezco (crecer)

traduzco (traducir)

conduzco (conducir)

produzco (producir)

reduzco (reducir)


d) Others are irregular in their first, second and third person, and also change a vowel or a consonant:

digo

soy

he

vengo

tengo

voy

dices

eres

has

vienes

tienes

vas

I say

I am

I have

I come

I have

I go

you say

you are

you have

you come

you have

you go



From the first person of present indicative are formed:


- The present of subjunctive.

- The imperative of "Usted / -es" and "nosotros" as well as the complete negative imperative.

salga-n, salgamos, no salgas, etc. (Go out, let us go out, don't go out)



PRETÉRITO INDEFINIDO - PAST TENSE


The pretérito indefinido as well as imperfecto correspond to the English past tense.

The first one expresses an action in the past which has been already completed and finished or which happened in a closed period of time.

Ayer estuve enfermo.

Yesterday I was sick.

Viví 10 años en Brasil.

I lived in Brasil for 10 years .


Irregulars:


a) Some of them have a total irregularity:


- They have the following endings:(Without accent on the first and third person so as the regulars do)

-e

-iste

-o

-imos

-isteis

-ieron


b) If the pret. indefinido has a "J", the "i" on the 3rd. person plural disappears.

From that 3rd. person the imperfect of subjunctive is formed. Thus the imperfect subj. is: dijera, trajera, tradujera, etc

dijeron

They said

trajeron

brought

tradujeron

translated

condujeron

drove

produjeron

made


c) The verbs SER and IR are totally irregular and they have the same form for both of them:

fui

fuiste

fue

fuimos

fuisteis

fueron


d) DAR has the following pret. indefinido:

di

diste

dió

dimos

disteis

dieron


e) The verbs that in present change the "E" to an "I" or to "ei" change here the "E" to an "i" in the 3rd. person (singular and plural).


E into I: hoy yo elijo, ayer él elijió. Yo sigo, ayer él siguió (seguir)

elegir

elijo

choose

freír

frío

fry

medir

mido

measure

pedir

pido

ask for

reír

río

laugh

servir

sirvo

serve

vestir

visto

dress

repetir

repito

repeat


E into IE: Presente: miento, siento, divierto, arrepiento.

Pretérito: mintió, sintieron, divirtió, arrepitieron

mentir

miento

lie

divertir

divierto

enjoy

sentir

siento

feel

arrepentir

arrepiento

repent


f) MORIR and DORMIR (to die and to sleep) change the "O" into "U" in in the 3rd person (Singular and plural):

murió

murieron

durmió

durmieron


With the 3rd. person plural of Pretérito Indefinido will be formed the imperfect of subjunctive:

trajera

tuviera

mintiera

muriera

diera



PRETÉRITO PERFECTO


- It expresses an action within a period of time which is not yet finished or if already finished it continues up to the present.

Hoy he hablado con ella.

Today I have spoken with her.

Este año ha llovido poco.

This year it has rained little.


- It is formed with the present of "haber" (to have): he, has, ha, hemos, habeis, han and the participle of the verb that we want to express.


- The participles finish with -ADO or -IDO and it is invariable in all persons (See the irregular participles).


PRETÉRITO IMPERFECTO


- Expresses an action in the passed which happened simultaneously with another action or during a not limited period of time or which was happening often.


- It is the tense of narration.

Cuando vivía en el pueblo conocía a todos y hablaba cada día con ellos.

When I lived in that village I knew everybody and spoke everyday with them.


Érase una vez... (+ verbo "imperfecto")

Once upon a time... (+ verb "imperfecto")


Irregulars:


(only 3): IBA (I went); ERA (I was); VEÍA (I saw)

- It is also used with indirect sentences in the past:

Dice que piensa ir.

He says he thinks to go.

Dijo que pensaba ir.

He said he thought to go.

- If by describing a long time in the past we introduced a happening with a shorter action, the longer action needs an imperfecto while the unique or short needs a pretérito indefinido.

Cuando estaba en casa sonó el teléfono.

When I was at home the telephone rang.


PRETÉRITO PLUSCUAMPERFECTO


- Expresses an already happened and completed action preceding another also finished action.

Cuando llegó el tren ya había salido.

The train had already left when he arrived,


- It is formed with the imperfecto of "haber" (to have):


FUTURO


- The regular futures are formed with the infinitive of a verb adding to it the following endings: é, ás, á, emos, éis, án

- It expresses an action which will take place in a future time and without indicating its ending:

Mañana vendrá a verme.

Tomorrow he will come to see me.


- It also expresses a possibility:

Tendría unos 40 años.

He is about 40 years old.


Irregulars:


a) Some verbs loose the "e" from the root:

querré

I shall want

sabré

I shall know

cabré

I shall fit in

podré

I shall be able to


b) Some others change the "e" or "i" into "d":

valdré

It will be worth

tendré

I shall have

pondré

I shall put (place)

vendré

I shall come

saldré

I shall go out


c) Two verbs loose 2 letters of the root: decir and hacer.

decir - diré

I shall say

hacer - haré

I shall do



FUTURO COMPUESTO


- It expresses a future action which will occur previous to another future action:

Mañana a esta hora ya me habré marchado.

Tomorrow at this time I shall have left.

- It is formed with the future of "haber" (to have): habré, habrá, habrá habremos, habréis, habrán and the participle of the verb that we want to express.

(See the irregular participles).



CONDICIONAL SIMPLE


- Expresses a possibility in the present or the future.

Me gustaría salir.

I would like to go out.


- It is used to form the courtesy sentences:

- The regular conditionals are formed with the infinitive of a verb adding it the following endings:

ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían.


Irregulars:


The same as the irregular futures.



CONDICIONAL COMPUESTO


- It expresses a possibility in the past which can not be achieved anymore.

Ayer habría podido hacerlo.

I could have done it yesterday.


- It is formed with the conditional of "haber" (to have): habría, habrías, habría, habríamos, habríais, habrían and the participle of the verb that we want to express.

(See the irregular participles).



SUBJUNTIVO



PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO


The present has a meaning of future, according to the sentences, and it will be used in:


1. Sentences with verbs expressing: willingness, believe, doubt, hope, fear, liking, disliking, possibility, or necessity.

Quiero

No creo

Temo

Me gusta

Es posible

Es necesario

QUE

QUE

QUE

QUE

QUE

QUE

venga

llueva

se caiga

cante

nieve

lo hagas

I wish that he comes.

I don't believe that it will rain.

I am afraid that he will fall.

I like that you sing.

It is possible that it snows.

It is necessary that you will do it.

As we see, the subjunctive mood is used whenever two sentences, separated by the conjunction QUE, appear. The first sentence expressing hope, willingness, etc, the second one must be a subjunctive with an own subject.


2. Some conjunctions can never precede a future, this will be instead substituted by a present or past of subjunctive.

Not Vengo cuando puedo but: vendré cuando pueda. I come (I will come) whenever I can.

Cuando:

when:


Como:

as:


Aunque:

although


Mientras:

as long as:



El (la, lo, los, las) que:

whoever

Vendré cuando pueda.

I will come whenever I can.


Lo haré como quiera.

I will do it as I want.


Le invitaría aunque no venga.

I will invite him although he will not come.


Comeremos mientras tengamos dinero.

We shall eat as long as we have money.


Lo verá el que quiera.

Whoever wants will see it.


3. Other conjunctions can only be followed by a subjunctive (present or past):

Para que:

so that:


Sin que:

without:


Antes de que:

before:


Después de que:

after:


A condición de que:

under the condition that:

Hablo para que me escuches.

I speak so that you can hear me.


No puedo ir sin que me lo permitas.

I cannot go without you allow it to me.


Partiremos antes de que sea demasiado tarde.

We shall leave before it is too late.


Lo sabré después de que me lo digas.

I will know it after you have told me.


Te invito a condición de que vengas.

I invite you under the condition that you will come.


All persons of the present subjunctive are formed with the same irregularity as the first person of the present of indicative:

Infinitive

First person of Present indicative

Present of subjunctive

Conocer (know)

Venir (come)

Traer (bring)

conozco, conoces...

vengo, vienes...

traigo, traes...

conozca, conozcas..

venga, vengas...

traiga, traigas...


Except:

Infinitive

First person of the Present indicative

Present subjunctive

Ir (go)

Ser (be)

Estar (be)

Dar (give)

Saber (know)

Haber (have)

voy, vas...

soy, eres...

estoy, estás...

doy, das...

, sabes...

he, has...

vaya, vayas...

sea, seas...

esté estés...

dé des...

sepa, sepas...

haya, hayas...



PRETÉRITO PERFECTO DE SUBJUNTIVO


-  Expresses an action finished in the past in a sentence with a verb or conjunction needing a subjunctive (see such verbs and conjunction with the present).

Present:

Perfect:

Quiero que vengas mañana.

I want you to come tomorrow.

Espero que haya venido esta mañana.

I hope he has arrived this morning.


-  The present perfect  can also express an action in the future after another future action is finished.

Te escribiré despué de que me hayas escrito tú

-  It is formed with the present in the subjunctive of "haber"  (to have):

haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan.

and the participle of the verb that  we want to express.



IMPERFECTO OF SUBJUNCTIVE


1. The imperfect expresses a future action finished in the past ,as far as this past uses a verb or conjunction needing a subjunctive.

Quiero que vengas mañana.

I want you to come tomorrow.

Quería que vinieras ayer.

I wanted you to have come yesterday.

2. After the said conjunctions (see 2nd. And 3rd. cases in the present of  conjunctive) if they express a possibility in the present or the future. 

Dijo que vendría cuando pudiera.

He said he would come as soon as he would be able to.

Hablé para que me escuchara.

I spoke in order to be heard.

3. After the conditional conjunction "SI" (if) and in connection with the conditional tense

Si tuviera dinero compraría un coche.

If I had money I would buy a car.ar.


The imperfect has two possible different endings:

Either:

ARA   or  ASE   for verbs whose infinitives end with  AR. 

or:

IERA  or  IESE  for verbs whose infinitives end  with ER or IR  .


Both can be used indistinctively:

Si yo tomara

Si tú comieras

or    Si yo tomase

or    Si tú comieses

If I took

If you ate


All persons of the present of subjunctive are formed with the same irregularity as the third person of the Pretérito indefinido.

Infinitive

Third person of Pretérito indefinido.

Imperfecto subjunctivo

Ir (or ser)

to go / to be

fueron

fuera

Pedir

to ask for 

pidieron

pidiera

Dormir

to sleep

durmieron

durmiera



PLUSCUAMPERFECTO DE SUBJUNTIVO


It expresses an action already finished in the past  preceding another also in the past. The verbs or conjunctions in these sentences have to be the ones which need a subjunctive. (See the cases 1st., 2nd. And 3rd. in the present of subjunctive.)

No creía que su novia hubiera llegado.

He didn't believe his girl friend had arrived.


It is formed with the  imperfecto of subjunctive of "haber" (to have):

hubiera, hubieras, hubiera, hubiéramos, hubierais, hubieran

and the participle of the verb that  we want to express.



Example of the 4 tenses of subjunctive:

Hoy espero

I hope today,

que ella mañana VENGA

that she will come tomorrow

(Present)

Hoy espero

I hope today,

que ella ya HAYA VENIDO

that she has already come.

(Perfect)

Ayer esperaba

Yesterday I hoped,

que ella hoy VINIERA

that she would come today.

(Imperfecto)

Ayer esperaba

Yesterday I hoped,

que ella ya HUBIERA VENIDO

that she would have come

(Pluscuamperfecto)


Example of the 3 cases with the conjunction "SI":

Si hoy puedo voy (o iré a verte.

If I can I go (I shall  go) to see you today.

Si mañana pudiera, iría a verte.

If I could I would go to see you tomorrow.

Si ayer hubiera podido, habría ido a verte.

If I had been able I would have gone to see you yesterday.



IMPERATIVO


It expresses an order to command or to forbid a certain action.


- It has the same form as the present of subjunctive, except the 2nd person "" and  "vosotros" (you) in the affirmative form:

Tú, trae

bring

vosotros, traed

bring

Usted, (no) traiga

don't bring

 

- It precedes the indirect and the direct pronoun (in this order) forming a single word in the affirmative form:

Dígame eso

Tell me this

dígamelo

tell it to me


- In the negative or forbid form the order is as follows:

No me lo diga, or

Don't tell it to me.

No me diga eso

Don't tell me this.


- The reflexive verbs, in the first person plural (we), loose the last "s" before the reflexive pronoun "nos" (us):

Sentémonos (= sentemos + nos).

Let us sit down.

as well as the  2nd  person plural (you) looses the last  "d" before the reflexive pronoun "os" (you).

Sentaos (=sentad + os)

Sit down.